Li, W-H., Yi, S. and K. D. Makova.
Current Opinions in Genetics and Development, 12:650-656, 2002.
The strength of male-driven evolution - that is, the magnitude of the
sex ratio of mutation rate - has been a controversial issue,
particularly in primates. While earlier studies estimated the
male-to-female ratio (alpha) of mutation to be about 4-6 in higher
primates, two recent studies claimed that alpha is only about 2 in
humans. However, a recent comparison of mutation rates between a
noncoding fragment on Y and a homologous region on chromosome 3
reinstated strong male-driven evolution in hominoids. Several
studies investigated variation in mutation rates among genomic
regions that may not be related to sex differences and found strong
evidence for such variation. The causes for regional variation in
mutation rate are not clear but GC content and recombination are two